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 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTH EAST OREBODY FOR NFCA MINING PLC








EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


NFCA holds a Large Scale Mining License (7069HQLML) in the Chambishi Area


of Kalulushi District in the Copperbelt Province of the Republic of Zambia. The


license is valid for a period of 25 years starting from October 2009.


The company intends to invest about US$ US$832 million to develop and


operate the South East Ore body Project to process the ore deposit to


concentrate stage. The rationale of the project is to operate the South East Ore


body project to increase revenues for NFCA Mining Pic and provide employment


opportunities for Zambians. At construction, the project is expected to employ


500 to 1000 Zambians and at full production the project is expected to employ


5000 Zambians


NFCA commissioned MOKA Environmental Consultants of Kitwe to Conduct an


Environmental Impact Assessment for its South East Ore body Project and draw


its Environmental Management Plans.





The EIA Study


The EIA study was conducted and it consisted of the following phases:





• A scoping meeting;


• Development of Terms of Reference;


• A review of documents and literature related to the project and in


particular NFCA proposed operations;


• Socio-economic analysis of the neighbouring settlements


• A Biophysical Baseline study


• Impact assessment of bio-physical and socio-economic environments


• Compilation of Social and Environmental Management Plans and


• Closure and Decommissioning Plans and costs


Project Activities





• The project activities planned will include the following:


• Development of construction camp


• Site clearance and preparation


• Construction Phase


• Operational Phase


• Decommissioning and Closure Phase and


• Post-closure Environmental and Social Monitoring Phase


Main Project Components


The proposed South East Ore body Project will have the following main





infrastructure:





MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 1


Table of Contents


1.0 INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................2


2.0 THE EXPLORATION PROGRAM.........................................................................................................3


3.0 ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS..............................................................................................................6


4.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IDENTIFICATION, ANALYSIS, AND MITIGATION MEASURES7


5.0 CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................................................14



































































































































1


 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTH EAST OREBODY FOR NFCA MINING PLC











• One main vertical shaft, one service shaft and two ventilation shafts


• Underground mining operation; tunnel development and extraction -Mining


Methods


• Three waste rock dump


• A metallurgical processing plant


• One Tailings disposal dump








Identified Impacts and Mitigation measures


Both positive and negative impacts of the proposed South East Ore body Project


were identified.


The positive impacts


The following positive impacts have been identified:


• Impacts on the local and National economy through increased income for


the;


• Government and the local authorities through payment of taxes and other


levies;


• Impacts on local community through creation of jobs and social welfare;


• Business opportunities to local suppliers and contractors and its multiplier


effect.





The negative impacts





The proposed project is likely to have the following potential negative impacts:


• Impacts on land and soil;


• Impacts on air quality;


• Impacts on surface water;


• Impacts on ground water;


• Impacts on health and safety;


• Impacts on Public Health and Safety;


• Impacts on Land use and Ecosystem;


• Impacts on Public infrastructure;


The EIA has proposed measures to mitigate the potential negative impacts of the


operations of the South East Ore body Project where they may arise.


Environmental Management and Monitoring


In order to ensure successful implementation of mitigation measures, parameter


monitoring and subsequent audits, Environmental Management Plans,





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 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTH EAST OREBODY FOR NFCA MINING PLC





Environmental Monitoring Plans and Social Management Plans have been


proposed.





Closure and Decommissioning


The study also looked at what will be done to restore the disturbed land.


Consequent to land restoration exercise, the land should be handed back to


government after the decommissioning process. The estimated cost of closure is


approximately US$4.28 million.


We trust that the development will have little effect on the natural biodiversity as


most of the area to be developed is already under exotic species cultivation and


that there will be positive impacts on both the local and National economies as a


result of the project. We therefore recommend to the Zambia Environmental


Management Agency to approve the project.








Mr Wang Chunlai


CEO-NFCA Mining Pic





Principal Members of the Impact Assessment Team Comprised of the following:


Prof. Kakoma Maseka - Environmental Scientist / Team Leader


Mr. Wilson Moono - Geologist / Geotechnical Engineer





Mr. Agabu Shane - Mining Engineer / Environmental Engineer





Dr. Fredrick Chileshe - Metallurgical Engineer





Ms. Concilia Monde - Ecologist / Flora - Fauna Specialist





Ms. Mwila Maseka - Social Scientist





Ms Maureen Mwewa - Social Scientist











MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 3


Water Quality


Siltation and contamination of surface water bodies may occur due to dust generated


from drill sites and access roads. Accidental spillage or leakage of oil at storage areas


or at the drill site may also cause minimal groundwater contamination.


Mitigation measures


• Access tracks will be sprayed with water or molasses.


• Wet drilling technique will be employed through injection of water into the drill


hole thereby minimizing dust generation at the drill rig.


• Oil and fuel storage areas will be well paved and bunded to prevent leakage to


the soil.


• Drill sites will be cleaned as soon as the hole is completed to remove any spilled


materials and dispose them appropriately.


• All exploration vehicles and trucks will be regularly serviced to ensure that they


are in good working condition to minimize oil leakages.


Flora/Vegetation


Clearance of vegetation during the preparation of access roads and drill pads may result


in moderate loss of vegetation in the area.


Mitigation measures


• Access roads will be prepared along pre-existing tracks to minimize loss of


vegetation.


• Cutting of bigger trees will be avoided by restricting drill pads away from bigger


trees.


• Cleared vegetation will be allowed to regenerate at the end of the project.





Fauna


There will be no significant impact on fauna in the area.


Soil


Accidental oil spillages and leakages at drill sites or oil storage facilities may lead to soil


contamination.


Mitigation measures


• Oil and fuel storage areas will be well paved and bunded to prevent leakage to


the soil.


• Drill sites will be cleaned as soon as the hole is completed to remove any spilled


materials and dispose of them appropriately.


• All exploration vehicles and trucks will be regularly serviced to ensure that they


are in good working condition to minimize oil leakages.


Safety and Health


Dust generated during RC drilling may lead to occupational exposure to the drilling


crew. Dust generated during handling of samples and disposal of used sample bags





9


ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL NATUTURE SOURCE OF SIGNIFICANCE MITIGATION


COMPONENT IMPACT OF IMPACT IMPACT OF IMPACT MEASURES


roads


Wet drilling will


be employed


through injection


RC Drilling of water into the


drill hole thereby


minimizing dust


generation at the


drill site


All exploration


vehicles will be


regularly serviced


Trucks and 4x4 to ensure that


they are in good


working


Noise and Increase in condition; Where


the access road


passes close to


the villages,


vehicles convenient speed


limits will be


observed to


ambient noise Negative Moderate minimize noise


levels


Drilling sites are


far from the


villages; Workers


at the drill site will


Vibration be provided with


levels RC Drilling the necessary


Personal


Protective


Equipment (PPE)


to protect them


from the elevated


noise levels


Access tracks will


Siltation and be sprayed with


Dust generated water or


contamination of molasses to


surface water minimize dust;


bodies due to from access Wet drilling will


dust generated Negative roads and drill Low be employed


Water Quality from drill sites through injection


and access of water into the


sites drill hole thereby


roads minimizing dust


generation at the


drill site


Possible Oil spillages and Oil and fuel


groundwater Negative leakages at drill Low storage areas will


contamination sites or oil be well paved





11


ENVIRONMENTAL ENVIRONMENTAL NATUTURE SOURCE OF SIGNIFICANCE MITIGATION


COMPONENT IMPACT OF IMPACT IMPACT OF IMPACT MEASURES


pads and drill pads minimize loss of


preparation vegetation;


Cutting of bigger


trees will be


avoided by


restricting drill


pads away from


bigger trees;


Cleared


vegetation will be


allowed to


regenerate at the


end of the


project;


Employment The project will Priority will be


require local given to the local


opportunities for Positive labor throughout Moderate people for


the local people the life of the


project employment


Acquisition of The project will Priority will be


impart new skills


new skills by the Positive to the local High given to the local


people through people for


local people training them on employment


the job


Increase in Increase in the NFCA will


communicable number of facilitate


diseases, Negative immigrants High educational


particularly HIV moving to the programmes on


and AIDS area in search of HIV and AIDS in


employment the project area


The project will


Socio-economic lead to


improvements in


road


Improvement of infrastructure


which will bring


about


subsequent


improvements in


social Positive other social High


infrastructure in infrastructure; at


the moment


there are no


water supply


boreholes in the


Chambishi area because it


is not possible to


bring drilling rigs


through the bad


access roads


No significant


Fauna impact expected


to occur





13


4.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS IDENTIFICATION, ANALYSIS, AND MITIGATION


MEASURES


Geological surface exploration drilling is by and large an environmental involvement by


virtue of the activity and associated activities being carriedout through partial


disturbance of undisturbed land or partially disturbed land.


The southeast orebody expansion project by NFC - Africa Mining Pic is located in


partially disturbed land that has to some extent re-stabilized to natural eco-system. The


area under consideration is semi-inhabited; one the southern side off the Chingola-


Kitwe road, the area is partially on mining surface rights and partially on a private farm


which has since been acquired by NFC - Africa Mining Pic. The southern orebodies and


service facilities such as shafts will be located in this area. On the northern side of the


Chingola - Kitwe road (N1 orebody), the area is largely under surface mining rights and


partially private. This area is currently occupied by squatter subsistence farming


communities.


Environmental impacts were identified on the basis of the information obtained from the


environmental baseline data that was gathered during a site visit to the project area.


Other impacts were identified during stakeholder discussions with officials from the


Forestry Department and Kalulushi Municipal Council. The identified impacts were


classified according to the nature of impact, that is positive or negative and significance


of impact. Impact significance was determined through consideration of such issues as


the likelihood of occurrence, the anticipated magnitude of impact, and duration of the


impact. The following possible impacts were identified:-


Positive impacts


s Employment opportunities for the local population


s Acquisition of new skills by the local people


s Improvement of social infrastructure close to the prospect


Negative impacts


s Dust generation along access roads and during Reverse Circulation (RC) Drilling


and sample handling and transport


s Increase in ambient noise and vibration levels


s Occupational and inadvertent exposure to dust hazards


s Loss of vegetation during access roads and drill pads preparation


s Accidental spillage and leakage of oil at storage areas and drill sites


s Potential increase in the spread of communicable disease such as HIV and AIDS


These impacts could in turn affect the quality of receptor environmental components


such as air quality, noise and vibration, water quality, soil and land use, and the


socio-economic environment. The possible impacts on respective environmental


components are summarized below together with the suggested mitigation


measures.











7


Since inception of operations, NFC -Africa Mining has been trying to expand its


operation to meet increased demand of Copper and Cobalt on the international market.


The first expansion was the west orebody, which was achieved in 2008. The current


exploration work is aimed at expanding the underground mining operation from current


Chambishi mine to Sabina area near the turnoff to Mufulira along the Chingola - Kitwe


road.











2.0 THE EXPLORATION PROGRAM


NFC-Africa Mining Pic has identified a potential for eastward expansion of the


underground mining activities to exploit both Copper and cobalt. The potential area runs


from the current Chambishi mine to the Sabina - Mufulira road almost parallel to the


Chingola - Kitwe road. The identified resources lie on both the southern side of the road


(near Chambishi current mining operations) and on the northern from Lusala stream to


Hybrid poultry farm on the western side of Mufulira road - N2 and N1 orebody


respectively (see figurel above).


Historical information indicates existence of an orebody, southern off shoot of the


Chambishi basin where the current mining operations are taking place. The orebody


hosts both copper and cobalt in varying ranges both in grade and tonnage. The depth


location ranges from 500m in the east to about 2060m on the western end near the


Chambishi mine.


The exploration program is phased into three stages;


• Stage one was to do confirmatory drilling for the existence of economically viable


orebody in N1 and N2 orebodies or rich zones previously delineated from


historical drilling


• Stage two was to conduct the geotechnical exploration drilling of ground


condition at depth at locations where service facilities mainly service and


ventilation shafts will be.


• Stage three is to proceed with further verification of the quality and quantity of ore


in the zones outside zones N1 and N2 - dubbed S1 and S2. This stage is mainly


to carter for future expansion and sustainability of operations insurance.


NFC - Africa Mining Pic sought the expert experienced services of Sinomine Resource


Exploration Company Limited of China to conduct a detailed exploration to verify the


historical data on the existence of the southeast off shoot of the Chambishi basin


orebody. This work started with re-examination of the available data and delineated its


boundaries. The work started in earnest in December 2008 and by September 2009, the


zones had been identified and verification drilling commenced thereafter. The studies


identified two main resources; N1 and N2 orebodies separated by a barren zone. The


quantities identified are tabulated below in tables 1 & 2:











3


The expenditure on exploration of the Northern Area of the Southeast orebody project


was as follows:


US$ 2544000 was spent on exploration borehole drilling.





5


 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTH EAST OREBODY FOR NFCA MINING PLC





3.1.4.3 Minerals distribution characteristics of the Area





From regional correlation, copper ore deposit spreads out in parallel beds along


two flanks of Kafue anticline. There are Konkola Copper Mines, Nchanga Copper


Mines, Chambishi Copper Mines, Baluba and Luanshya etc. from northwest to


southeast in turn on the west of Kafue anticline and many large and ultra large


copper ore deposits such as Mufulira Copper Mine while Bwana Mkubwa Copper


Mines are on the east of it, thus becoming NW-SE metallogenic belt.





Chambishi Copper Mines is located in northern margin of Chambishi Basin within


central SW ore belt while southeast ore field is located in north-eastern flank of


Chambishi Basin whose whole altitude is controlled by structure of the basin.


Stratum exposed in the field is mainly a series of metamorphic rocks of low-


medium metamorphic grade, forming basement and cover of ore deposit.


Basement is composed of Lufubu series and Muva series and its lithology is


schist, quartzite, gneissic granite and quartz-mica schist. Overlying sedimentary


cover Katanga super-group overlaps unconformably on the basement and it is


sedimentary-metamorphic formation transformed from a serious of non-marine


clastic rocks by metamorphism. Each stratum in the formation has conformable


contact relationship and can be divided into lower Roan, upper Roan, Mwashia


and Kundelungu from bottom to top. There are weathering residual and slope


washes of quaternary system on Katanga super-group.


Lower Roan: it overlaps unconformably on the basement and we can know that


its average thickness is 104.55 m by boreholes. This group stratum can be


divided into nine lithologic sections from bottom to top according to lithology





lithologic sections of lower Roan are respectively:


1. Transitional Conglomerate,


2. Feldspathic Quartz Sandstone,





3. Footwall Conglomerate


4. Footwall Quartzite,


5. Dolomite,





6. Mineralized Slate,


7. Upper Quartzite,


8. Interbedded Argillaceous rock and Quartzite,





9. Top Quartzite.


The Mineralized Slate section is a lamellar and banded structure. This is the


main ore-bearing horizon of the ore field and its lithology is black, grey black and


light grey argillaceous slate and sandy slate. It is a low metamorphic argillaceous


and dolomitic sandstone and sandy mudstone. It is located at a depth of 555.20-


1014.55 m and the thickness is between 1.25-31.25 m with an average thickness


is 17.91 m. This section is divided into footwall argillaceous slate ore body and





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 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTH EAST OREBODY FOR NFCA MINING PLC








east of secondary risings in the central ore field. Thickness of argillaceous rock


zone is great in ore-bearing shale of the secondary basin and falling.


3.1.4.5 Ore Deposit Geology


Genesis of southeast ore deposit of Chambishi Copper Mine complies with rift


metallogenetic mode of ore deposit. Industrial type of ore deposit is metal


polysulphide ore deposit.


Southeast mining area of Chambishi Copper Mines is located in 7 km southeast





of main mining area. Mining area is 6 km long from east to west and 5 km wide


from north to south, having an area of 30 km2. Ore body occurs in a series low


metamorphic argillaceous and sandy slate and yielded in laminated form. They


are folded with surrounding rock. They extend from north to west overall,


complying with axial trend of fold structure in the main and plunges towards


northeast with inclination of about 5-15°. Altitude in part of section (low-lying


section) of ore body is different and ore body extends along its trend and


tendency steadily.


Ore body characteristics of north mineralized belt





The rich ore body on which the current project planning is based on is divided


into two sections. These lie on the northern side (N1) and southern side (N2) of


the Chingola - Kitwe road.


N1 ore body: occurs in a series of low metamorphic argillaceous and sandy slate


and yielded in laminated form. They are folded with surrounding rock and located


in the north-western flank of syncline. Ore body resembles a “boot’’ as a whole


and extends from north to west. It complies with axial trend of fold structure in the


main, declining towards northeast with inclination of 5 -15° and being in line with


south-western flank of syncline substantially. Altitude in part of section (low-lying


section) of ore body is different. It is 2589 m long along the trend and 569 -


1237m wide along the tendency and extends along its trend and tendency


steadily.


In the horizontal direction, plane projection pattern of ore body is irregular


banded. In the vertical direction, ore body’s buried depth is 550 -1000m and


extends from north to west declining towards northeast with inclination of 5-15°


and rises from SE to NW. True thickness is 2.32-21.68 m and average thickness


is 9.41 m. TCu grade is between 1.59%~5.95% and TCu average grade is 2.30%


and Co average grade is 0.116%.


N2 ore body: it is located on the southern side of Chingola road. Along the axis of


the ore body it stretches around 900m. In the horizontal direction, plane


projection pattern of ore body resembles an oval. In the vertical direction, ore


body pattern is in layers with buried depth of 960 -1079m. Inclination of ore body


is 0-15° and average inclination is 10°. Thickness is 2.58 -10.72m and average


thickness is 8.25m. TCu grade is between 1.92 - 2.29% and TCu average grade


is 2.46%.








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4.0 Project Description





4.1 Introduction


NFCA Mining Pic intends to mine the Southeast Orefield (ore bodies N-2, N-1, S-


1 and S-2 ) which is located 7km away from the current Chambishi Copper Mine


on the southeast. The total copper ore reserves are estimated at 76,345,500


tonnes at an average grade of 2.18%. Production per annum is planned at


3,300,000 tonnes and this gives a total of 25 years of production.


The construction phase will start this year and it’s estimated that it will take 5 -


5.5 years. This implies that production shall be scheduled for the second half of


2016.


The life of this mine can be estimated at 25 years of production plus five and half


years of construction. Roughly the project will take 30 years excluding years of


decommissioning and environmental rehabilitation.


The mine will be scheduled to produce 10,000 tonnes of ore per day and there


shall be 330 working days per annum. Work will be done in three eight hour


shifts.


The proposed project will gobble a total of US$832 million as total capital


investment. This cost includes include capital investment, total working capital


and interest on capital.


The project is expected to employ 500 to 1000 Zambians during construction and


5000 Zambians during the operational stage.





4.2 Historical Background


Chambishi Copper Mine was one of the mines under the Zambia Consolidated


Copper Mines Limited. It is located in Kalulushi District of the Copperbelt


Province of Zambia. Ore resources at Chambishi Copper Mine include the main,


footwall and southeast ore bodies


Mining of the main ore body started in 1963, initially using open cast and later


using underground mining. By 1978 it reached a production capacity of 6500


tonnes per day and in August 1987 production was suspended because of


several reasons, among them improper mining methods, lack of equipment, low


funding and low copper prices.


In 1991, the Zambian government began to implement privatisation of state-


owned companies and in 1996 China Nonferrous Metal Mining (Group) Company


bought the Chambishi Copper Mine through a competitive binding process and


on June 29, 1998 China Nonferrous Mining Company Limited signed a


development agreement with the Zambian Government in Beijing. This brought


about the establishment of NFC Africa Mining Pic, with equity 85% going to


China nonferrous Metal Mining Company Limited and 15% to the ZCCM - IH for


the Zambian Government.





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Figure 4.1; Location of Chambishi Town


4.4 Ore Reserves


Southeast Orefield covers an area of 30 km2 with length of 6 km from east to


west and width of 5 km from south to north.


Southeast ore field is divided into south and north mineralisation zones or belts.


Cut off grades of between 1.5-1.75% and ore thickness of equal or greater than


2.5m have been used to define the boundaries of the four ore bodies in the


Orefield.


In the northern side mineralisation belt N-1 & N-2 have been defined and S-1 &





S-2 in the southern belt.





N-1 ore body has 46,473,400 tonnes of copper ore at an average grade of 2.30%


TCu and 55,030 tonnes of cobalt ore at an average grade of 0.118%.


Table 4.1: N-1 Ore Reserves





Ore Resource Mineral Weight Average Metal Cu Metal


quantity (ten grade (%)


body Code thousand ton) (t/m3) TCu Co (t) Co (t)





N-1 333 4647.34 2.6 2.30 0.118 1067070 55030








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583mL(650~700 2.1 0.07 1.7 0.11 0.11


m) 22.03 3 6 188.33 4 0 321.77 .43 0





633m(600~650m) 207.41 2.1 0.07 43.46 1.7 0.11 404.75 2.2 0.11


3 6 4 0 6 0


683mL(550~600 184.34 2.7 0.11 270.20 2.2 0.11


m) 5 2 6 0


733mL(500~550 2.7 0.11 1.6 0.11


m) 303.69 5 2 198.33 7 0





783mL(450~500 321.65 2.3 0.11 131.54 1.6 0.11


m) 1 9 7 0


833mL(400~450 732.48 2.3 0.11 36.43 2.1 0.11


m) 1 9 7 0


883ml_(350~400 2.2 0.12


521.45


m) 5 5


933mL(300~350 230.18 2.2 0.12


m) 5 5


983mL(250~300 2.1 0.11


m) 1188.58 8 7





1033mL(200~250 935.53 2.1 0.11


m) 8 7


Total 4647.34 2.3 0.11 362.17 1.8 0.11 2023.73 1.8 0.11


0 6 9 0 6 0








4.5 Shafts - Preparation/ Planning and Construction Phase


This phase shall include preparation of shaft sinking sites; clearing of site,


surveying, marking, and preparation of designs/ drawings and drilling of pilot


holes. The pilot holes are necessary as they shall provide data required before


the shaft is sank. Activities during preparation/planning and construction phase


will also include hoisting river and building sand for concrete and building mortar,


laterite for foundations and roads construction, aggregates for concrete and


construction of sub base and pavement, waste rock, cement, concrete blocks,


and other general building materials (e.g. timber, steel etc) to the project site





4.5.1 Main Shaft





The Main Shaft shall be located 355 metres away from the Kitwe - Chingola


Road (western side of the road) between exploration line No. 35 and 41, with x, y





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Figure4.2: Main Shaft Hoisting System





4.5.2 Service Shaft


The Auxiliary/ service Shaft shall be located 290 metres away from the Kitwe -


Chingola Road (also on the western side of the road) between exploration line


No. 35 and 41, with x, y and z coordinates as 15288.000, 10750.000 and


1233.000 respectively. The shaft shall be round with a diameter of 7.2 metres


and depth of 1133 metres.





























































































































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4.5.3 South Ventilation Shaft


The South ventilation shaft will be located on the western side of the Kitwe -


Chingola Road 301 metres. This position is southeast of N-1 Ore body and near


No. 11 prospecting line with x, y and z coordinates as 14125.000, 9840.00 and


1218.000 respectively. The shaft shall be round with diameter of 6.5 metres and


depth of 668 metres. A pilot hole of 650 metres has already been drilled to


expedite the sinking of South Ventilation Shaft.


4.5.4 North Ventilation Shaft





The Ventilation Shaft shall be located on the western side of the Kitwe -


Chingola Road approximately 300 metres away. This position is between Ore


bodies N-1 and N-2 near prospecting line No.65 and closer to N-2 Ore body. The


shaft will be round with diameter 6.5 metres and depth of 936 metres. A pilot hole


will be drilled before the sinking of the north Ventilation Shaft.


4.5.5 Alternative 2: Shaft Locations and Design


Alternatively the main and service shafts shall be located between No. 23 and 29


prospecting lines with a special fresh air intake shaft, which shall be located at


west side of N-1 Ore body near No. 41 prospecting line. In this alternative the


special intake shaft shall be more than 500 m away from the Chingola - Kitwe on


the same side where all the shafts will be located. Road The north ventilation


shaft in this alternative will be located at west side of N-1 Ore body on No.47


prospecting line and the south ventilation shaft will be located at south side of the


N-1 Ore body near No. 11 prospecting line. All ventilation shafts shall be round


with diameter of 6.5 m. below are the positional coordinates and depth of the


shafts:


The head frame for the main shaft and the service shaft shall be 1222m and


1220m respectively. In this alternative the winding/ hoisting house installations


will be the same as in the preferred proposed design.


In addition alternative 2 will have a Special fresh air intake shaft which shall be


used as an air inlet for north mining area.


This alternative is not economical and has not been adopted.








Table4. 4: Alternative 2 for Shaft Location and Design


Shaft Name X Y- Z- Depth Diameter





Coordinate Coordinate Coordinate (m) (m)


Main Shaft 14813.700 10416.200 1222.000 1167 6.5





Service Shaft 14739.000 10366.000 1220.000 1120 7.2


Special Intake shaft 15280.000 10805.000 1235.000 935 6.5








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Figure4.4: Location of the Ore bodies








4.6 Shafts - Operational Phase


4.6.1 Main Shaft





The main shaft will serve as a down cast air intake and a double decked 23 m3


bottom-emptying skip with steel guides shall hoist ore and or waste and a


5600kW rating, JKMD5*4 (IE) E ground-mounted multi-rope hoists in the


winding/hoist house shall run the skip up and down the main shaft.


4.6.2 Service Shaft





The auxiliary shaft shall serve as a down cast for fresh air intake into the mine


and shall also be used to take equipment in and out of the mine. It shall also be


used for man riding. It shall also be used to hoist materials in and out of the mine.








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4.7.4 North Ventilation Shaft


The main fans shall be uninstalled taken out of the plant and there shall be no


more air being up casted from underground. The shaft collar shall be blasted and


barricaded. The shaft collar shall be plugged, re-profiled and re-vegetated.


Warning signs shall be placed around the barricade.


4.7.5 Special Intake Shaft


The shaft collar shall be blasted. The shaft collar shall be plugged, re-profiled


and re-vegetated. Barricades and warning signs placed around.


4.8 Underground Infrastructure - Preparation/planning and





Construction Phase


4.8.1 Pump Chamber


The pump station shall be located at 1035mL.


4.8.2 Crushing Chamber





The main tips shall lead to the crusher chamber which shall be installed with two


sets of crushers at about 55m below Level 1033m.


Crushing chamber will be located at 1088mL between the main shaft and service


shaft.





4.8.3 Production and Tramming Levels


Levels at 753m, 903m and 1033m will be tramming levels / main haulages. The


service shaft will connect with various production levels through horse head


doors at 753mL, 833mL, 903mL, 933mL, and 1033mL and connect with the


crusher chambers at 1088 mL.








4.8.4 Mine Dewatering


It has been estimated that southeast ore body has the potential to discharge


between 42000 - 90000 m3/ d into the mine drainage.


4.8.4.1 Drainage system


The underground pump station, transformer substation and water sump will be


located around 1033mL.


4.8.4.2 Sludge Discharge system from the water sump





After the mud has settled to the bottom of the water sump, the Clearwater will be


pumped to water storage dam ready to be pumped to the surface and from the


bottom of the water sump all the sludge will be drained and or pumped out and


disposed of on top of the waste rock dump. This will enhance soil fertility for re¬


vegetation. Alternatively the sludge will be disposed to the tailings dump.











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Ore Crushing Sequence


Revolting


Chain ---► ---► Lower -


gate crusher ore bin





Belt Distributio Measuremen


---► -


convey n trough t device











> Hoisted























Waste Rock Crushing Sequence


































































































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4.9.8 Diesel Depot


Two 23,000 litres capacity diesel tanks shall be installed in the diesel deport and


all loaders, vehicles and any other machinery that use diesel shall refuel in the


diesel deport.


4.9.9 Waiting Room, Material Warehouse and Rock Drills Shop





Locomotives and Granby cars shall be repaired and maintained in the loco shop.


There shall be a waiting room for the workers to assemble in to receive their daily


safety act and work for each particular day. Accessories that are required by all


mining activities underground shall be stored in a materials warehouse. All rock


drills accessories like drill steels, shanks, bits etc shall be stored in the rock drills


shop.








4.10 Underground Infrastructure - Closure/ Decommissioning Phase


4.10.1 Crushing Chamber


At closure the crushers will be uninstalled and taken out of the mine with any





accessories that could be reclaimed. The crushing chamber will then be


barricaded and decommissioned.





4.10.2 Pump Chamber


The pumps and any other accessories that can be reclaimed will be uninstalled


and hoisted to the surface of the mine and the chamber decommissioned.


Entrances to the chamber will be barricaded.


4.10.3 Production and Tramming Levels


At close power, compressed air and water supply will be disconnected.


Compressed air pipes and power supply cables and water pipes reclaimed and


brought to the surface of the mine. Entrances to production levels, draw cross


cuts, scrapper drifts, drives and tips barricaded and decommissioned.


On tramming levels water, electricity and compressed air shall be disconnected.


All pipe networks reclaimed and taken to the surface.








The trolley line, rails, locomotives and Granby cars taken to the surface and all


loops and haulages barricaded and decommissioned.








4.10.4 Mine Dewatering


4.10.4.1 Drainage system


The drainage network will continue to collect water from all working levels to the


pump chamber in the sumps.








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Table4.6: Total Area to be covered by infrastructure


Building Type Area (m2)





Industrial 22573


1


buildings


2 Office Block 585





3 Total 23158








Table4.7: Materials and Quantities of Materials





Material Quantity (t)





1 Steel 2939


2 Reinforcement 603





3 Cement 5539

















4.11.2 Surface Ore Bin


The surface ore bins shall cover an area of 820 square metres and have


dimensions 2(p15m X28.8 m. It shall have reinforced raft concrete foundation,


reinforced wall. It shall consume 89 tonnes of steel and 442 tonnes of cement at


construction phase.


4.11.3 Flotation building


The flotation plant will be 90m X24m X15.5m in length, width and height


respectively. It shall be constructed of reinforced beam foundation, sandwich


steel slab and plasterboard wall. It shall consume a total of 184 tonnes of steel


and 450 tonnes of cement.


4.11.4 Main Building





The main building shall have axial dimensions of 90x72.87x18 metres in length,


width and height respectively. It shall be constructed of reinforced beam


foundation, sandwich steel slab and plasterboard wall. It shall consume a total of


990 tonnes of steel and 1450 tonnes of cement.














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4.11.13 Main Shaft Head Frame


Head frame for the main shaft shall be 32 metres tall, made of steel frames and


shall have a reinforced concrete foundation. It shall consume a total of 480


tonnes of steel and 150 tonnes of cement.


4.11.14 Service Shaft Head Frame


Head frame for the service shaft shall be 50 metres tall, made of steel frames


and shall have a reinforced concrete foundation. It shall consume a total of 690


tonnes of steel and 220 tonnes of cement.


4.11.15 Main Fan Electronic Control Room


The main fan electronic room will have axial dimensions of 6x6x6 metres in





length, width and height respectively. It shall have a reinforced concrete


foundation and sandwich steel slab wall. It shall consume a total of 2 tonnes of


steel and 1 tonnes of cement.


4.11.16 Maintenance building





The maintenance building shall have axial dimensions of 30x12x6 metres in


length, width and height respectively. It shall have a reinforced concrete


foundation, sandwich steel slab and a plasterboard wall. It shall consume a total


of 25 tonnes of steel and 20 tonnes of cement.


4.11.17 Hoist room of service shaft


The service shaft hoist room shall have axial dimensions of 21x18x15 metres in


length, width and height respectively. It shall have a reinforced concrete


foundation, sandwich steel slab and a plasterboard wall. It shall consume a total


of 25 tonnes of steel and 22 tonnes of cement.


4.11.18 Hoist room of main shaft


The main shaft hoist room shall have axial dimensions of 18x18x15 metres in


length, width and height respectively. It shall have a reinforced concrete


foundation, sandwich steel slab and a plasterboard wall. It shall consume a total


of 24 tonnes of steel and 20 tonnes of cement.


4.11.19 Main step-down substation


The main step down substation shall have axial dimensions of 27.5x10x12


metres in length, width and height respectively. It shall have a reinforced


concrete foundation, cast in place reinforced column and a masonry wall. It shall


consume a total of 52 tonnes of steel and 153 tonnes of cement.


4.11.20 Tailings conveying building





The tailings conveying building shall have axial dimensions of 48x21x5 metres in


length, width and height respectively. It shall have a reinforced concrete


foundation, sandwich steel slab and a plasterboard wall. It shall consume a total


of 70 tonnes of steel and 32 tonnes of cement.








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concrete foundation, steel plate wall and a steel column. It shall consume a total


of 60 tonnes of steel and 20 tonnes of cement.


4.11.30 Service Roads


The total road network in the southeast Orefield is estimated to be 2.95


kilometres long. There will be three kinds of roads at the proposed southeast


Orefield depending on its functions and properties.





There shall be roads for ferrying of mine personnel from the township to the mine


site, roads that will be used for the transportation of waste rock to the waste rock


dump and the road for maintaining the tailings pipeline and dam.














































































































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Name o< Axial Building indexes Characteristics of building structure


Building Structure Wall Column Slab Roof Steel Cement


No. dimensions Bearing Insulation Douf s


building volume Foundation External wall Internal wall Column and


(LxWxHm) area (m’) (m3) foundation (platform) structure and water windows (1) (t)


proofing




7 basin

foundation


Foundation Sandwich Plasterboard Reinforced Steel Sandwich Plastic


8 Canteen 30X12X3 360 1080 concrete Steel beam steel 35 60


beam steel slab wall foundation column steel slab doors and


windows


Return pump Foundation Reinforced Cast-in- Steel Sandwich Plastic


concrete place steel


9 21X9X6 189 1134 Masonry wall Masonry wall reinforced Steel beam doors and 18 54


station beam foundation concrete platform steel slab windows


column


Circulating Foundation Reinforced Cast-in- Steel Sandwich Plastic


water pump place steel


10 station Pump 36X9X6 324 1944 Masonry wall Masonry wall concrete reinforced Steel beam doors and 155 710


5,000m3-water beam 'oundation concrete platform steel slab windows


tank column


Water pump Cast-in¬ Plastic


station for Foundation Reinforced Steel Sandwich


production place steel


11 and fire Pump 30X9X6 270 1620 Masonry wall Masonry wall concrete reinforced Steel beam 150 700


arotection beam concrete doors and


5,000m3-water foundation column platform steel slab Windows


tank


32m-high Reinforced


12 steel head concrete Steel frame 480 150


frame foundation








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Name ol Axial Building indexes Characteristics of building structure


Building Structure Wall Column Slab Roof Doors Steel Cement


No. dimensions Bearing Insulation


building volume Foundation External wall Internal wall Column and


(LxWxHm) area (m1) (m3) foundation (platform) structure and water windows (t) (t)


proofing


windows


Stowing Foundation Sandwich Plasterboard Reinforced Steel Sandwich Plastic


20 system 18X18X15 1296 19440 concrete Steel beam steel 180 110


building (4 beam steel slab wall foundation column steel slab doors and


buildings) windows


Material Foundation Sandwich Plasterboard Reinforced Steel Sandwich Plastic


21 45X12X4 540 2160 concrete Steel beam steel 16 14


warehouse beam steel slab wall foundation column steel slab doors and


windows


Foundation Sandwich Plasterboard Reinforced Steel Sandwich Plastic


22 -ire house 40X9X4 360 1440 concrete Steel beam steel 11 10


beam steel slab wall foundation column steel slab doors and


windows


Foundation Sandwich Plasterboard Reinforced Steel Sandwich Plastic


23 Guards' room 12X6X2.8 72 202 concrete Steel beam steel 2 2


beam steel slab wall foundation column steel slab doors and


windows


nitiating _arge Large Reinforced Cast-in- Cast-in¬ EPS board Wood


roundation concrete place tor doors and


24 materials 18X6X3 108 324 prefabricated prefabricated single reinforced place nsulation plastic 7 20


foundation concrete reinforced and APP >teel


warehouse beam wall board wall board under column concrete for water windows


column proofing


Detonator Foundation Large Large Reinforced Cast-in¬ Cast-in¬ EPS board Wood


25 18X6X3 108 324 prefabricated prefabricated concrete place place for doors and 7 20


warehouse beam wall board wall board single reinforced reinforced nsulation plastic


foundation concrete and APP steel





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4.11.31 Volume of Material to be transported


The total volume of material to be transported outside and inside the proposed


project site has been estimated at 4,261,680 tonnes per annum.


Table 4.9: Volume of Transport per annum


Cargo


No. Unit Quantity Source Destination Method


Name


1 Dynamite t/a 1926 Outside In-factory Automobile


Factory


Non¬ Ten Outside Automobile


2 electrical thousands/a 47.66 Factory In-factory


detonator


3 Nonel Ten 296.27 Outside In-factory Automobile


thousands/a Factory





4 Drill Piece/a 4829 Outside In-factory Automobile


Factory


5 Drill stem Piece/a 475 Outside In-factory Automobile


Factory


6 Drill shank Piece/a 271 Outside In-factory Automobile


Factory


Outside


7 Tyre Piece/a 476 In-factory Automobile


Factory


8 Oils Million litre/a 128.4 Outside In-factory Automobile


Factory


9 Cement t/a 72703 Outside Backfill Automobile


Factory station


Outside Ore Automobile


10 Steel ball t/a 1980 Factory dressing


plant


Outside Ore Automobile


11 Liner t/a 660 Factory dressing


plant





12 Adhesive m2 1650 Outside Ore Automobile


dressing





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Within the mining area there shall be 4 x 32 tonnes dump trucks (one on


standby), 3 scrappers (one on standby) having a loading capacity of 5 cubic


metres.


Automobiles for the living quarters: equipping commuters to carrying the workers





go to and from the compound, as well as the necessary liaison cars for business.


It is initially determined as following:








Table 4.10: Transporting Equipment


Equipment Name Units Capacity





1 Dump Truck 4 32 ton





2 Front End loader 3 5m3





3 Coaches 5 65 passengers





4 Fire Engine -


2


5 Ambulance 2 -





6 Sprinkler 2 -


7 Sedan 2 -





8 Off road vehicle 2 -











4.11.33 Waste Disposal Site





The site will be serviced by oxidation ponds type of arrangement for the


biological treatment of sewer waste. All places that will have offices and shower


rooms shall channel its sewer to this treatment system. The effluent from the


ponds will be recycled for flushing toilets and greening the site any excess will be


discharged to the environment after disinfection through an approved and


licensed site by ZEMA. The company will acquire a license for the facility from


ZEMA








An area of size 300 X 300 metres shall be designated as a non hazardous solid


waste disposal site. The company will acquire a license from ZEMA to operate


this disposal site. This site shall carter for all waste except hazardous waste and


domestic waste.











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4.12.6 Tailings Thickener


The thickener shall separate the tails and water. The under flow shall collect as


tailings and the overflow shall be water without solids. This water will be re¬


circulated back into the plant and used as process water. The tails will report to


the backfill plant where some will be used as fill material for the stopes


underground and some will be taken through a pipeline to the tailings dam for


final disposal.


The thickener basin shall store the under flow material from the thickener before


it is transferred to the backfill plant or the tailings dam.


4.12.8 Canteen Building


The canteen building shall be used as a kitchen for cooking meals for the





employees at the mine. Employees will be required to buy meals at their own


expenses..


4.12.9 Return Water Pump Station


The decanted clean water from the tailings dam will be passed to a re-circulating


pump station and conveyed to the re-circulated water sump.


With flow rates of 8500 m3/day re-circulated water will be used for industrial


purposes only. The re-circulation water pump station shall be equipped with two


250SS900 type water pumps each having a power rating of 220KW. Only one


shall be in use at any time, the other one shall be on stand by. The PVC pipe


type shall be used in the re-circulation water sump station.


4.12.10 Circulating Water Pump Station


The circulating water pump station will be equipped with water pumps to keep


pumping the water in the water circuit to all the departments and required


operations.


4.12.11 Water pump station for production and fire protection





4.12.11.1 Water supply


The source of water for the proposed project will be from underground. This shall


constitute both domestic water and industrial water supply. The sections 5.6.1 to


5.6.6 describe activities of water supply during the operational phase. The


preparation / planning phase of the water supply system shall involve clearing


and levelling the water treatment and septic soak way sites, surveying and


marking out the exact dimensions and preparation of drawings for the water


treatment plant and the septic tank and soak way system. This phase shall also


incorporate siting and doing the drawings of the pump station.


Construction stage shall involve digging, compacting the floor and lining of the


reservoir, construction of the pump station and installation of pumps, digging and


construction of the septic tank and soak way biological treatment compartments.








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4.12.18 Main step-down substation


The main step down substation shall be equipped with a step down transformer





and shall reduce the voltage from the 33kV to what is required by different


departments and activities.


4.12.19 Tailings conveying building (Backfill Plant)





The tailings conveying building will receive the tailings from concentrating


process and transfer the under flow to underground stopes and the overflow to


the tailings dam for final disposal. It will save as a backfill plant.


4.12.20 Stowing system building


This is where tailings will be treated. The pH of the tailings will be neutral. The


final concentrator tailings leaving scavenger cells will be pumped to a back fill


plant for classification. Hydrocyclones will be used to classify the tailings into


coarse sand and fines. The coarse fraction will be mixed with some cement and


pumped to the worked out stopes underground where it will be used as back fill


to fill the holes left after mining out the ore in the stopes. The fines will be


pumped to the tailings dam for final disposal.


4.12.21 Warehouse


The warehouse building shall be use to store materials required in different


departments when they are brought to the mine site..


4.12.22 Fire Station





In the estimation of water supply for the purpose of fire fighting at the mine it is


assumed that the mine catches fire at the same time and it has duration of 2


hours. The fire fighting water supply network shall draw water from the 5000


cubic metres storage reservoir at the mine. This shall be the same reservoir that


shall provide domestic and industrial / process water. Two XBD10/30-125G/5


type fire pumps with a power rating of 450kW per unit shall be installed at the


pump station for the purpose of drawing water in case of fire at the mine site.


Each pump shall be able to pump as much as 40 L/s and only one pump will be


used at a time if a fire occurred. The other one shall be on stand by.


A 160 cubic metres water storage tank shall be installed on the rooftop of the


tallest building to store water for fire fighting purposes. Fire fighting water supply


network pipes shall employ galvanised steel pipes.


Portable dry powder fire extinguishers will be placed at strategic designated


places in plant area to be used for fire fighting in case of any fire.





4.12.23 Security Guards' Room


The security guards’ room shall be used as a security check point at the entrance


of the plant. Employees and contractors entering the plant will have to be


checked before entering and leaving the plant. Vehicles and trucks shall also be


checked likewise.





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suspended in the water to settle at the bottom and there by only clear water will


be discharged. In situations when there shall be inadequate process water


supply clear water from the sedimentation pond shall be taken back into the plant


to be used as process water





4.13 Surface Infrastructure - Closure/ Decommissioning Phase


The surface infrastructure will require disconnection of power supply, reclamation


of any materials that can be used elsewhere, demolition of concrete foundations


and walls, grading, re-profiling and re-vegetation of the grounds.


The power line and its associated infrastructure (transformers) shall be


uninstalled. The Southeast Orefield shall first be isolated from power (Cut from


power), power lines uninstalled, poles dug out and removed, the way leave re¬


vegetated.


4.14 Mining Methods





The preparation/ planning of mining methods involved reviewing of different


mining methods in relation to the southeast ore body characteristics, selection


and design of the chosen mining method. Post pillar Sublevel Backfill and Room


& Pillar Backfill Mining Methods were selected depending on the dip and


thickness of the ore body. Figure 4.5 and 4.6 show the detailed designs of the


post pillar sublevel and room & pillar backfill mining methods respectively.


Construction phase involves mining of the primary and secondary development.


This development constitute mining such infrastructure as the ore pass sublevel


drifts (footwall drives), access cross cuts, ventilation raises, drainage drives and


raises, mining drives (access to the ore body). The construction stage prepares a


stope for long hole drilling and finally blasting.


Closure/ decommissioning of stopes underground will be progressive. This


implies that as one stope is fully developed; blasting and the production will


follow. Once the stope has produced its expected tonnage (depending on


grades), access to the stope will be closed and barricaded and if there is need to


seal, that will be done in order to control the air flow.


4.14.1 Ore body Characteristics


The Southeast Ore body is one of deposits in the mineral exploitation license of


NFC Africa Mining PLC. The Southeast ore body occurs between foot


conglomerate of the basement granite and dolomite argillite. It is a strata bound


and shale type copper ore deposit and can be divided into three sections the


footwall schist ore, main ore and roof argillaceous ore. There are two mineralized


belts in Southeast Ore body, the North belt with N-1, N-2 and the South belt with


S-1 and S-2 ore bodies


The southeast ore body lies at a depth of between 550-1000 metres, displaying


smoothly waving configuration. The horizontal project area is approximately


2.0km2. The thickness of ore body ranges from 2.32 to 21.68 metres, with


average thickness of 9.41 metres. The dip ranges between 5-15°.





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S = ^f-.RQD





300


Where;


S is the Rockmass quality index;


Rc is the UCS of rock;





RQD is the rock quality index and it is equal to ratio between the length of the


core which is longer than 10cm and the total length of the drilll core








The hanging wall rocks are mainly Lower Roan sandstone and argillaceous


quartzite, with a thickness of 15 to 30 metres and saturated UCS of 56MPa


(sandstone) and 132MPa (argillaceous quartzite), with an average of 94MPa,


and RQD of 97%. S is equal to 0.30 according to the above formula and the rock


mass quality can be assessed as being medium.








The ore body is chalcopyrite and pyrite sandy slate, with an average thickness of


20 metres, saturated UCS of 55MPa and RQD of 98%. S is equal to 0.19 and the


rock mass quality can be assessed as medium.





The footwall is quartzite and argillaceous conglomerate, with an average


thickness 10-50 metres, saturated UCS of 99MPa (quartzite) and 77MPa


(argillaceous conglomerate). This gives an average of 87MPa and RQD of 98%.


S is 0.28 and the rock mass quality can be classified as medium.





4.14.3 Hydro geological conditions


The main aquifers in the mining area are the weak water-rich Quaternary, weak


water-rich weathering zone, the Upper Roan group with structural karst breccia


middle water-rich. There is a huge impermeable layer with a thickness of 180 -


530 meter in the roof strata. During exploration, no hydraulic conductive


structures were found in the impermeable layer and some straight cleavages with


a linear fracture rate of 0.3 per metre was found occasionally. So the


groundwater has no direct impact on the ore deposit water content.








Naturally, there are no direct hydraulic connections between the streams/ rivers


and the main aquifers. And due to the huge thick impermeable layer in the roof,


the surface waters have no direct impact on the ore deposit water content.


4.14.4 Cut and Fill Mining Method - General Principle


Cut and fill stoping, is normally an overhand and replaced mining method in





which horizontal slices of ore are excavated in the stope and replaced with waste


as fill. The fill can be a combination of waste rock and tailings. The filling is





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4.14.6 Post Pillar Stoping


The post-pillar method is used for wide ore bodies with a greater vertical extent





than can be mined with the room and pillar method. As each horizontal cut is


mined and backfilled, pillars are maintained to support the back. Pillars become


tall and slender, but the backfill prevents buckling.


Ore competency should be good to prevent pillar and back failure. Post-pillar can


be classified as an overhand stoping method.





4.14.7 Unsupported Backs


In competent ore, the stope back may require little or no support. An occasional


rock bolt or stull may be required to support a loosened slab.


4.14.8 Rock-bolted Backs


The most common method of back support in overhand stopes is the installation





of rock bolts on a pattern after each blast. This minimizes the extent of


unsupported back that men must work near or under. Rock bolts prove to be a


nuisance when mining the next cut, however, because blast holes may be drilled


into an installed rock bolt, and rock bolts have to be manually removed from the


broken ore.


4.14.9 Reasons for Selecting Cut and Fill





4.14.9.1 Ore Body Geometry


The shape of an ore body is important to the selection of a mining method. Cut


and fill methods are almost always considered for steeply dipping veins. Most cut


and fill stoping and development methods rely to some extent on gravity flow of


broken rock, and thus veins with dips less than the angle of repose (< 45°) of


broken rock must be mined using footwall or hanging wall development.


Irregular ore bodies, such as replacement ore bodies, are often candidates for


cut and fill mining.








Whenever mining requires manned stopes with potentially high backs and walls,


cut and fill mining is used to improve safety and wall support by limiting the


working height of a stope. Backfill provides a working floor at a convenient


elevation for mining activities.


4.14.9.2 Mining Selectivity/Grade Control





Because of the limited open volume of cut and fill stopes and the wall supporting


function of backfill, very irregular surfaces can be followed precisely. Greater


selectivity results in a higher grade ore product, which is important to the


economics of a mining operation.














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4.14.9.9 Cost


Cost is a primary consideration in the choice of a mining method (see 19.1.5).


Cut and fill mining will generally be more expensive than open stoping. However,


the previous criteria may rule out all methods except cut and fill, or the reduction


in dilution may be financially attractive and justifiable.








4.14.11 Mining methods to be adopted


The Southeast Ore body is an underlain deposit; at a depth of 550 - 1000 metres





with average thickness of 9.35 metres. Open pit is not suitable. The ore body will


be exploited using underground mining methods.





It is planned that the ore body will be mined using post pillar mechanized


sublevel backfill mining method and room & pillar delayed backfilled mining


methods depending on ore thickness and dip.


Where the ore body has thickness greater than 10 metres and dipping between





15 and 20 degrees, post pillar mechanized sublevel backfill mining method will


be adopted Where the ore body is less than 6 metres thick and dip less than 10


degrees, room & pillar delayed backfill mining method will be employed.





All these two fall in the category of cut and fill mining method.







































































MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 137


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6





I





I * 9


I « 1





5 4 3 2 1





3 2 1 > **.«*#


* .IRBU-u


CROSS SECTION








3 8 5 7 6 8 4








LEGEND


1- Sublevel Drill


2- Acess to Orebotly


3- Sublevel Drift in Orebody


4- Post Pillar


5- Backfill Material


i < ' 6-Crown Pillar


7- Rib Pillar


8- Drain age Raise


9- Drill & Ventilation Raise








PLAN











NOTE Room and Pillar Delayed Backfill


The maliod will be adopted n Ihc orebodv wth leu Ilian 'mi b* l u.dtp.


Mining Melliod














Figure4.6: Room and Pillar Delayed backfill Mining Method































































































MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 139


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The formula below can be used to calculate the caving height of the caving zone


in practice:








(k - l)cosa





Where; h is the height of caving zone;





m is the height of mined out void;


k is the broken swell index;


a is the dip of ore body.





4.14.14 Crack Zone


The overlaying rock, in which the cracks, separations and fractures come into


being, but maintaining a layered structure, is called crack zone. It beds between


the caving zone and curving zone, and larger cracks, deformations and failures


will appear in it. The failure features are not only the cracks and fractures which


are vertical to the bedding planes but also the separations are parallel.


When mining under the water, the caving zone and crack zone is called hydraulic


conductivity fracture zone. The height of hydraulic conductivity fracture is related


to rock characteristics. For the weak rocks, the height is 9 to 12 times of the


mined height. For the moderate rocks, the height is 12 to 18 times of the mined


height. For hard rocks, the height is 18 to 28 times of the mined height.





4.14.15 Curving zone


The curving zone refers to the whole rocks above the crack zone up to the


surface, the strata movement features are as following: there will be continuous


and regular movement, but the stratum maintain integrity and layered structure,


and some separations will appear in the lower part of the zone. In the vertical


sections, the sediment difference among all parts is minimal. The curving zone


height is mainly impacted by the mining depth. When the mining depth is small,


the curving zone does not exist, and the hydraulic conductivity fracture zone will


be up to the surface. When the mining depth is large enough, the height of


curving zone can be much higher than the sum of the heights caving zone and


crack zone. And the underground mining will not affect little to the surface.


The factors of deformation, Mining depth, the dip of the ore body; the shape of


the ore body in plan; the strength of the ore body; the strength of the surrounding


country rock; the strength of the overburden or cap rock; the presence of major


structural features such as faults and dykes intersecting the ore body and cap


rock, the depth of mining as defined by the undercut level and the associated in


situ stress field, the slope of the ground surface; any prior surface mining; the


placement of fill in a pre-existing or newly produced crater; and nearby


underground excavations.








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The Southeast ore body bedded gently dipping at 10 degrees on average,


moderate thickness of 10 metres and located between 550 - 1000 metres below


the surface. The post pillar backfilled mining method and room & pillar delayed


backfill method will be used, so many substantial rib pillars will be planned to be


left to support the roof, the ratio of pillar to stope is about 20-30%.








Void treatment by strip packing or hydraulic or pneumatic solid stowing can


reduce the subsidence in a single panel by more than 50% depending on the





nature and timing of the treatment. The largest reductions are obtained for solid


stowing carried out immediately after mining. Stowing has been used


successfully in Europe, India, the UK and the USA, for example, to control


subsidence, particularly for thick seam and multi-seam extraction. However, it


adds to mining costs and has an impact on rates of production in highly


mechanized operations.


In the Southeast Orefield, the backfill mining methods will be used, so the voids


will be filled with waste or classified tailings or paste backfill material in time, the


roof rock of the void will be supported and then the subsidence or failure can be


controlled effectively and reduce the extent or height of the caving and crack


zone.








Harmonic extraction involves the phased removal of the mineral from a critical


area such that the ground surface is lowered smoothly and horizontal strains are


minimized. The technique may be used to protect structures that are especially


important or susceptible to subsidence -induced damage. Harmonic extraction


requires that the panel be advanced in at least two faces maintained at a


carefully calculated distance apart. The orientation of the structure with respect to


the direction of face advance determines whether protection against the


transverse or the longitudinal surface wave is the more important. Peng (1992)


provides illustrations of harmonic extraction in single and multi-seam mining, but


indicates that the method is only applicable when a single entry system between





panels is used.





In Southeast Ore body mining plan, the excavation schedule should be carefully


calculated and arranged in order to realize the harmonic excavation to protect the


ground surface such as the main roads, rivers & streams and farms etc.








4.14.17 Possible impact of Underground Mining





Given that the swell index is 1.5, average ore thickness being 10 metres and the


dip of 10 degrees and assuming no rib pillar left and no backfilling done, the


height of caving can be estimated as;








MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 143


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stope shall be filled with solids and there shall be no subsidence or caving of


ground.


The process of Backfill plant will be fully automated and computerised. The use


of cement in the mixing process in the agitator will ensure that the backfill


material will give high strength of fill, relative good stability and no weathering of





filled in material once deposited in the stope.
































































































































MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 145


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4.15 Ore Processing Methods


4.15.1 Process Flowsheet


The process flow sheet for the proposed concentrator for the Chambishi





Southeast ore is summarized in figure 4.10. Run-of-mine ore will be crushed to -


225mm at an underground crushing plant and hoisted by skip to the surface


where a conveyor belt will transport it to a coarse ore bin (effective storage


capacity of bin will be 10000 tonnes). Crushed ore from the bin will be fed onto a


conveyor belt by a vibratory feeder and transported to a semi autogenous (SAG)


mill for coarse grinding to 20% - 75 microns (i.e. 20% -200 mesh). Ore slurry


from the SAG mill will flow to a sump by gravity. Ore slurry from the sump will be


pumped to hydrocyclones for classification. Overflow from hydrocyclones will flow


to the flotation plant whilst underflow sands will flow to a ball mill for further


grinding. Ore slurry from the ball mill will flow into a sump from where it will be


pumped back to the hydrocyclones. The fineness of grind for the ore will be 65%


- 75 microns.


Cyclone overflow from the grinding circuit will flow into an agitation tank for





mixing with flotation reagents. Ore slurry from the agitation tank will be pumped


to the roughing flotation machines. Concentrate from roughing will be pumped to


three cleaning stages whilst rougher tailings will be pumped to two scavenging


stages. Cleaned concentrate from stage 1 will be re-cleaned in stages 2 and 3 to


make a final concentrate assaying 24% copper and 0.6% cobalt.





The copper concentrate will flow to a thickener whilst thickener underflow (60%


solids w/w) will be pumped to ceramic filters for filtration to attain a final moisture


content of 8 - 10%. The filtered concentrate will be transported to Chambishi


Smelter by road trucks.


Final tailings from scavenging stage 2 assaying 0.26% copper and 0.06% cobalt


will be pumped to a grading plant where sands will be separated out for use as


backfill in mining operations while fines will be pumped to a tailings dam for


disposal.












































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4.15.2 Ore Transportation


The run-of-mine ore will be transported by conveyor belt to the underground


crushing plant. Ore from the crushing plant to the coarse ore bin will be


transported by skip and from ore bin to SAG mill transportation will be by


conveyor belt. From the SAG mill to the rest of the concentrator ore will be in


slurry form and transportation between the various stages will be by pipes and


pumps. Filtered copper concentrate will be transported by conveyor belt to the


loading bay and then by road trucks to the smelter.





4.15.3 Process Buildings





Process sheds to be constructed at the site will include:


• Conveyor belt corridor


• Coarse ore bin


• Grinding and flotation building





• Copper concentrate thickening and pumping station


• Filtration plant building


• Tailings thickener


• Tailings Pump House








4.15.4 Non-Process Buildings


Non-process buildings to be constructed at the site include:





• Administration offices


• Ablution facilities and change room


• Gate house, security and access control area


• Laboratory


• Engineering workshops








4.15.5.Tailings Disposal


Tailings from the concentrator will be produced at the rate of 9209 tonnes per


day (or 3,038,970 tonnes per annum) assaying 0.26% copper and 0.06% cobalt.


A tailings dam will be constructed on the Lusala stream and tailings from


concentrator operations will be deposited there for 25 years of mine operations.


Much of the Lusala stream lies within the Mukulumpe farm and currently the


stream is dammed on two points to store water for irrigation. The tailings dam will


be located down stream from the irrigation dam before the confluence with the


Mwambashi stream.








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Figure 4.12 Selected site for tailings dam location on Lusala Stream


downstream of the irrigation dam.








4.15.5.2 Water drainage and flood-prevention structure


The water drainage and flood prevention of this impoundment uses a concourse





system, that is, the same system is used for water drainage and flood prevention.


Considering the relatively flat topology of this reservoir and relatively higher


tailing piling in the reservoir at the final stage, the water drainage flood prevention


system which combines the water drainage well and drainage pipe is adopted, in


which the water drainage pipe is used for drainage and the water drainage well is


used for containing the water. Plans have been made to construct a frame type


water drainage well of 15.0m height and 3.0m inner diameter, and a reinforced


concrete water drainage pipeline of 90m length, 1.5m inner diameter, slope 2%,


at downstream of the tailings impoundment. This pipeline will extend over the


natural ground slope out of the impoundment. A spillway is to be constructed on


the dam downstream the tailings impoundment. The inlet water in the spillway


will be 13.5m high and 6.0m wide of a mortar-constructed stone structure, which


will assist the water drainage well in discharging the flood water during the flood


season.


In order to prevent embankment failure by overtopping due to storm rain water


and to effectively discharge the penetrated water, a water drainage ditch is to be


constructed on the outer side of the reservoir, slope 1.0%, trapezoid section,


initial section depth 0.5m, width 0.5m and slope angle 45° at bottom, extending to


the return water pool downstream.








4.15.5.3 Return water system


The tailings from the ore dressing plant, together with the water from the tailings


impoundment will be clarified in the tailings impoundment. Part of the water will


naturally be vaporized and part of will remain inside the tailings apertures in the


impoundment. The bulk of the water in the tailings from the ore dressing plant will


be reclaimed and sent back to the ore dressing plant as a supplement for


process water.








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To ensure the safety of the tailings dam and to enhance the management


measures, specific management staff and maintenance personnel are to be


assigned to the tailings dam to ensure close monitoring in every shift. Regular


patrol inspections shall be carried out on the tailing dam. A guard room is to be


set up near the tailings dam.


The tailings dam guard room will be supplied with power for lighting from the





concentrator and telecommunication equipment which will be controlled by the


concentrator. A land telephone will be installed in the guard room.


4.15.5.5 Management of the tailings dam


The tailings dam is the last work step in the course of mine production. It is a


place used for environmental protection and a place where the tailings are piled


orderly and safely. The production practice over a century has evidently proved


the method of piling the tailings in a tailings dam used today in the production is a


relatively mature and effective method. However in the whole mining industry, a


few mining enterprises have encountered problems with their tailings dams, such


as collapsing of the structures, blockages, landslides, dam failure and etc. These


accidents are due to both subjective and objective causes. They have brought


about serious economic losses and personal hazards to the residents and


industrial enterprises in the area around the reservoir and in the downstream


area of the reservoir. This has negatively affected the mining enterprise in terms


of social benefit and economic benefit. Therefore the security of the tailings dam


is the most important issue of the production management of the mine.





The hazardous accidents at tailings dams have mainly been attributed to the


following causes:


Unstable dam slopes that have caused overall or local landslide resulting in


water and sand discharge out of the impoundment


The insufficient discharging capacity of the drainage structure in the embankment


has caused the water in the impoundment to overflow over the dam and


consequent dam collapse


During the flood season, due to improper management, the arch cover in the


drainage well is set at too high a position which has caused the water level in the


impoundment to increase constantly. If this increase is not stopped the saturated


water level in the dam body increases causing the penetrated water to overflow


from the dam slopes resulting in damaging of the dam body by the penetrated


water flow


Due to improper management, the tailings slurry is discharged along a line


parallel with the dam axes causing too much water accumulation in front of the


dam resulting in some parts of the dam body to begin to slide and to break.


To ensure the safety of the tailings dam and enhance the management





measures, specific management staff and maintenance personnel will be


assigned to the tailings dam to ensure constant monitoring in every shift. Regular





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(9) Maintenance and management of the tailings transfer pipeline will be


enhanced. In case of an accident the pipeline will be shutdown, cleaned and


discharged to prevent tailings leakage due to blockages in the pipeline.





4.15.6 Water Requirements





Total water consumption in the mine: 38590.0 m3/d


New water consumption in production: 13750.0m3/d


Living water consumption: 840.0m3/d





Water circulation volume: 15500.0m3/d


Backwater volume: 8500.0m3/d








4.15.7 Water resource


Process water as well as domestic water will be supplied from underground. The


normal water discharge under the shaft of N1 ore body will be enough to meet


the demands for process water and domestic water except drinking water which


will be supplied in barrels from an out outside source. Water for fire prevention


will also come from underground.





4.15.8 Chemicals and Reagents Associated with Chambishi


South East Concentrator


Chemicals to be used at the concentrator will include collectors, frothers,


flocculants and lime as listed in table 1.








Table 4.12. List of chemicals to be used by Chambishi South East Concentrator.


Name Supplier Country of Consumption Use





Origin


Collectors


(Xanthates) Cytec Industries UK 80-120g/t Flotation





Frothers Cytec Industries UK 10-20g/t Flotation


Settling


Flocculants Cytec Industries UK 10-20g/t


aids


Lime Ndola Lime Zambia 5-1 Okg/t Flotation


Company








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4.16.4 No Project Option





The no project option will result:


• No construction of the mine and leach plant


• No expenditure on construction of the plant


• No employment to the surrounding community during the construction and


operation of the plant





• No disturbance to the land except what has already been cleared for


exploration


• Loss of investment worth millions of dollars


• Loss of Tax revenue by Government


• Loss of Tax Revenue by Kalulushi Municipal Council




























































































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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


plant and workshop equipment Manager


will be first priority


87 S Noise reduction measures such Site 2011 2016


as sound insulation and noise Manager


enclosure will be used in


electric equipment.


88 S The main air blower room will Site 2011 2016


be sound proof and will have Manager


sound proof walls to protect the


employees from high noise


levels,


89 L Planting trees along access and Site 2011 2016


periphery roads shall shield and Manager


reduce noise levels.


Soil To protect soil from 90 S Refuelling of construction Site 2011 2016


contamination from equipment will be done in Manager


fresh and used oil spills. designated areas and periodic


maintenance will be done on all


equipment to avoid oil leaks


getting into the soil.


91 S Drip trays will be used in Site 2011 2016





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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


Surface Infrastructure - Preparation/ planning and Construction


Air Quality To prevent 78 S Water bowsers will be used to Site 2011 2016


contamination of spray access roads and all Manager


ambient air by dust. construction sites to suppress


dust.


79 S If available molasses will be Site 2011 2016


sprayed on roads and Manager


construction sites to suppress


dust formation.


80 L Trees to be planted along the Site 2011 2016


plant site periphery and access Manager


roads to act as wind breaker.


Surface Water To prevent surface 81 S Storm water drains will be Site 2011 2016


Quality water contamination constructed around all Manager


infrastructures to be


constructed. These storm water


drains will prevent erosion of


soil and run into the main storm


water drain that will lead into a


series of settling ponds.





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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


acceptable levels. exceed 82 dB. Safety officers


will monitor the use of ear


protection on the mine.


125 L Trees planted along access Manager 2017 2040


roads and the plant periphery Environment


will not only act as a wind


breaker but also sound proof.


Solid waste Dispose solid waste 126 S Waste coming from different Manager 2017 2040


accordingly sources will be segregated Environment


accordingly.


127 L An area for solid waste Manager 2017 2040


segregation will be marked out Environment


and labelled according to kinds


of waste to be placed in those


areas.


128 L In different places colour coded Manager 2017 2040


bins will be placed according to Environment


type of waste to put in those


bins.


To put in place waste 129 L A waste management Manager 2017 2040


management procedure to be put in place. Environment


procedure.





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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


136 L Warning signs to be written in Manager 2017 2040


symbols, English and Security


Vernacular language.


To minimise health and 137 S All employees shall undergo Mine 2017 2040


safety risks. medical examinations once Manager


every year to ascertain their


fitness.


138 S A medical fitness certificate will Mine 2017 2040


be required before a person is Manager


engaged.


139 S All plant equipment will be Workshops 2017 2040


subject to a routine Manager


maintenance programme to


ensure they are in good working


order, hence minimising health


and safety risks.


140 S All workers whether contractor All Managers 2017 2040


or not will be subject to wearing


appropriate personal protective


equipment (PPE) depending on


the work type and place.


141 S All workers to go through safety All Managers 2017 2040





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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


Landscape and To protect visual 148 L Demolition of all surface Manager 2041 2045


Visual characteristics of the infrastructure, grading and re¬ Environment


Characteristics landscape. profiling of the surface and re¬


vegetation will change the


landscape and visual


characteristics.


Land use To rehabilitate the area 149 L Demolition of all surface Manager 2041 2045


infrastructures, grading and re¬ Environment


profiling of the surface and re¬


vegetation.


Soil, Surface To abate effects of ARD 150 S Determine ARD forming Manager 2041 2045


and ground on soil, surface and potential of the waste rock and Environment


water groundwater. tailings.


Mining Methods - Preparation/ Planning and Construction Phase


Air Quality To prevent 151 S Water and air blasts to be used Mine 2011 2016


contamination of whenever blasting is being Manager


underground air conducted.











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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


and fumes from drilling, wet drilling methods to avoid Manager


blasting and diesel units dust generation into the mine


environment.


173 S Diesel equipment to be Mine 2017 2040


equipped with gas absorbers Manager


174 S Use of low Sulphur content fuel Mine 2017 2040


will be prioritised Manager


175 L Ends shall be washed before Mine 2017 2040


lashing Manager


176 L Use of water blasts shall be Mine 2017 2040


prioritised Manager


177 S Ventilation section to monitor air Mine 2017 2040


quality underground according Manager


to schedule.


Noise To minimise noise 178 S All mine equipment and Mine 2017 2040


levels to acceptable machinery will be subject to a Manager


levels. routine maintenance to ensure


they are in good working order,


hence minimising noise levels.


179 s Only recommended and Mine 2017 2040


approved explosives shall be





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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


inductions Manager


To quickly attend to 186 VS An on site ambulance will be Mine 2017 2040


accident victims provided in case of any Manager


accident requiring transporting


of the patient to the nearest


hospital.


Tailings Use tailings to backfill 187 s Classified tailings to be used to Mine 2017 2040


stopes fill the goabs underground Manager


Waste Rock Use waste rock to 188 s Part of the waste rock shall be Mine 2017 2040


backfill stopes used to fill the mined out stopes Manager


Mining Methods - Closure/ Decommissioning Phase


Caving To prevent caving and 189 vs The mined out voids (goabs) Mine 2017 2040


cracking of the surface will be filled (backfilled) with a Manager


and surface mixture of waste rock and


infrastructure classified tailings and cement.


190 vs Chain and rib pillars will be left Mine 2017 2040


between and within stopes Manager


minimise the height and width


of failure.











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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


levels.


To protect workers from 164 VS Employees will wear Mine 2011 2016


noise exceeding appropriate ear protection in Manager


acceptable levels. workplaces where noise levels


exceed 82 dB. Safety officers


will monitor the use of ear


protection on the mine.


Mining Methods - Operational Phase


Caving To prevent caving and 165 S The mined out voids (goabs) Mine 2017 2040


cracking of the surface will be filled (backfilled) with a Manager


and surface mixture of waste rock and


infrastructure classified tailings and cement.


Only 4.06 m of caving will occur


with backfilling in place.


166 S Chain and rib pillars will be left Mine 2017 2040


between and within stopes Manager


minimise the height and width


of failure.


167 S Relocation of the farming Chief 2011 2016


community directly sited on top Executive








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Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


152 S Road ways to be water sprayed Mine 2011 2016


regularly Manager


To monitor the air 153 S Ventilation section shall take Mine 2011 2016


quality underground routine measurements to Manager


measure the levels of


particulate matter, gases and


fumes underground.


Accidents To prevent injury to 154 S Workers shall wear Mine 2011 2016


workers recommended and appropriate Manager


personal protective equipment


depending where they are


working.


155 S All works shall have proper Mine 2011 2016


established, documented and Manager


approved procedures.


156 S Entrances to tips, stopes and Mine 2011 2016


any place that is dangerous Manager


shall be barricaded accordingly.


Vibrations To minimise vibrations 157 S Only recommended and Mine 2011 2016


and consequently approved explosives shall be Manager


cracking of surface used at the mine.


infrastructure such as








MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 228


 27’48'0"E 27”50'0'E 27"54'0"E 28'4'0'E 28WE 28'8'0'E :8’12'0"E 28‘14'0'E 28"16'0"E 28’18'0'E 28’20'0"E





7069-HQ-SML








12'30'0'S -12'30'0'S











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12’38'0"S' -12'38'0'S


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12'40'0'S- -12‘40'0'S











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obalt, Copper, JranTuB ^AKITWE


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r. )36B


fit ion


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27'48'0"E 27*50'0"E 27’54'0-E 27°56'0"E 27”58'0"E 28'0'0"E 28'4'0'E 28 WE 28‘8'0"E 28'10'0"E 28°12'0”E 28'14'0-E 28‘16'0"E 28“18'0'E 28"20'0"E


SCALE 1:250 000





0 2.5 5 10 15 20 25 Km


I i l I I I I I l l i L J I I 1 I I I I L J---I I I L ± 1 1 I I


 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTH EAST OREBODY FOR NFCA MINING PLC











Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


excess into the surface water.


Noise To minimise noise 50 S All mine equipment and Mine 2017 2040


levels to acceptable machinery will be subject to a Manager


levels. routine maintenance to ensure


they are in good working order,


hence minimising noise levels.


51 S Only recommended and Mine 2017 2040


approved explosives shall be Manager


used in the blasting operations.


52 S Blasting will be conducted Mine 2017 2040


according to the blasting Manager


schedule to restrict noise


pollution to specified times.


To protect workers from 53 VS Employees shall wear ear muffs Mine 2017 2040


noise exceeding or ear plugs and other Manager


acceptable levels. necessary Personal Protective


Equipment.


54 VS Selection of low noise level Mine 2017 2040


equipment when purchasing Manager


equipment will be first priority


Vibrations Reduce vibrations 55 VS Blasting will be conducted Mine 2017 2040








MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 208


 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR THE SOUTH EAST OREBODV FOR NFCA MINING PLC











Table 6.1 Environmental Management Plans for the South East Ore body Project


Environmental Objective Item Rating Environmental Management Responsible Timing


Aspect no. Person Start End


Shafts - Preparation/ Planning and Construction Phase


Surface Water To prevent surface 1 L Sedimentation pond will be dug Site 2011 2016


Quality water contamination just beside the shaft to store the Manager


wastewater and solids will be


settled to the bottom while the


clear water is re-used in the


drilling process.


Noise To minimise noise 2 S All plant will be subject to a Site 2011 2016


levels to acceptable routine maintenance to ensure Manager


levels. they are in good working order,


hence minimising noise levels.


3 S Only recommended and Site 2011 2016


approved explosives shall be Manager


used in the blasting of shaft


sinking process.


4 S Blasting will be conducted Site 2011 2016


according to the blasting Manager





MOKA ENVIRONMENTAL AND GEOTECHNICAL CONSULTANTS JULY 2011 Page 198





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